Concrete Jungle: Conserving Canadas Menagerieof Concrete Sculptures Speaker 1: Thank you, Mary. And thank you to the NCPTT for inviting aNorthern neighbor, even though I am from the US. But, talking about a Canadian context in termsof roadside structure and pulls. So, for my presentation … Great. Talking about the Concrete jungle, conservingCanada’s menagerie of concrete carves. These are some recent projections, in 2017, anda current programme, for this year, that CSI and Ottawa’s office had participated in. Of working with district and universitiesfor the conservation of these sort of beloved sections that have become sort of the intrinsicvalue of local communities. So the three main projects that I’m goingto be talking about are the Centre Street Bride Lions, which are located in Calgary, Alberta, the Maurice Savoie Mural, which is located at Memorial University in St.John’s, Newfoundland, and Dinny the Dinosaur, likewise located in Calgary, Alberta at the CalgaryZoo. You can see here, that’s a patrimony postcardfrom the 1950 s of Downtown Calgary. The Centre Street Bridge is one of the mainroads. It’s a grid arrangement, so it’s the main road. Rather than a main street, they have CentreStreet. And the lions are actually four lions thatwere is available on kiosks through the pedestrian walkways resulting into and out of the city. And then, as we found out yesterday, everyoneloves dinosaurs. An sample of Dinny the Dinosaur from theCalgary Zoo. Who was, and still is, a beloved peculiarity ofthe zoo. Not time the live animals.And was quickly used as advertising and adestination smudge. This is actually … My coworker and coauthorSophia, this is actually her grandparents at their honeymoon, who traveled to go seeDinny as part of their trip. So simply a little context. I will acknowledge, I’ve been in Canada about fiveyears now, and my geography of Canada was lacking. So, the main projects, one of the biggestfactors patently in Canada is weather. It’s the Great White North, and it is true. Most parties joke, and I’m sure anyone fromnorthern territory. There’s two seasons in Canada, it’s winterand construction. So that does too restriction the conservation opportunitiesfor a lot of these outdoor artworks because your working times are limited, especiallyif you’re doing large scale jobs like these, as well as the type of materials thatyou can use because freeze-thaw, and time sheer freezing is such a problem.So, St. John’s, the whole way far far eastern inthe Maritimes. And, Calgary out west in a Western Prairies. The forecast itself, both are highly windy. But the Calgary has a unique sort of featurereferred to as the Chinook. Right next to the Rockies, it actually, inthe winter, you get high-pitched switches. So you get this weird … It will be negative3 0 degrees for two weeks, and then it are likely to be plus 50 for two weeks after. So you get these fairly drastic switches thatfacilitate further problems linked to any outdoor structures.Compared to the Newfoundland Maritime climate, where it is highly windy, most sunny, snowfall always, and this can all happen in changesof fifteen minutes within one day throughout the year. So, because these parts, which many of theones that have been spoken about with discussion, are identified as either public art or roadsideart, whether it’s privately owned or publicly held, there’s always this kind of balancebetween the conservator or the researcher, the public, because they’re the ones you’represerving this hopefully for, and likewise the customer. As we work in a private manufacture, there’salways this balance between what are your contractual obligations versus what advocacyshould you be promoting to the public for the portions that you’re working on.And then likewise, the public opinion to the client. We found a lot of the specimen, especiallyin Calgary, there was recently an election cycle. And an official misspoke about one of thepublic art slice motiving a very large controversy. Just because they territory something mistaken. Referencing one of the native communities. And as a result, there was a complete moratoriumon any public artwork. We were able to continue because we had anexisting contract, luckily with the lions, but we weren’t allowed to speak about it, we weren’t allowed to do any PR, any discussion with the public, anything because it was prettymuch a big no-no because then the public said, “Well, why are we spend money on thingsif we can’t agree with it? ” So it’s this constant balance.But always, hopefully, the object at the centerof it. So exactly kind of expanding on that. A batch of the preservation destinations with theseoutdoor sculptures and roadside lures is always you have your standards of what you’reworking towards of wanting to do everything from historic study, and coming allof your colour analysis done, doing textile identification, and historic research andphotographs. And many times, like I said, your timelinesare very short. The contracts don’t cover that kind of information. So, these projects really focused on justgetting the work done. Because, for the most part, the issue is, whilepublicly enjoyed, very forgotten fragments. And it wasn’t until they became health andsafety hazards that the city and universities decided to do something about it. So, “its one of” the Calgary Lions. So, as I said, it’s one of four. So, this connect itself was building in 1916. And, designed by one of the architects thatwas a member of the city council.And the lions are designed after the lionsat Trafalgar Square in London. “Its time” when Canada is still a Britishentity, so this is always the connection there. And, the lions themselves are thirteen tons. Quite massive. And were created in five separate parts. So they were cast around a enclosure of internalrebar, and then set in regions, as you can see here, on top of the connection. And then you kind of, these little kiosks, you can walk through and under. After that moment when they were installed, then the government has local sculptors are now in and apply kind of like a awning coat to add inadditional details for the mane and the faces.To kind of give a little bit more dimensionto the lions. And the idea was then sort of protect thebase concrete that was sort of still the same kind of concrete that was used as part ofthe bridge. So these “mustve been” structurally integral, as they kind of … Several feet up in the air and hanging over passersby. So, unfortunately, there was very little thatwas done for these objects over their countless years in Calgary in the extreme weather. So, in the late 80 s, it was decided one, theywere increasing the connection. And two, they realized that there was workthat needed to be done. So some safaruss … Regrettably thereare no records of what was done. Acrylic coatings were applied to the concrete, likely because they were spalling, and really general impairment over term. These finishings have had an adverse effectto the lions. So, after ten years of that, they did anotherround of creation on the aqueduct. And the decision was made to actually removethem in 1999 “because theres” bits falling off, they were found not to be structurallystable.But because of the link with the community, and the government has such a vicinity, they ousted the lions with brand-new throws. But the city saw this as an opportunity topreserve the existing ones. And it became absorbed in part of the publicart program that is sort of widespread throughout Calgary. So you can see here, basically four of thelions were all taken off. Sent to, kind of, lion graveyard on the topof a mound. And, three of them had been sitting theresince 1999. They did decide to preserve one of them andput it in front of city hall as kind of an crest of the sort of connection street itselfand the city hall, which is one block over. What they intention up doing with the cares, as you can see here, the amount of cracking that is throughout the structures, especiallyalong the seam courses. There was no … While there is an internalrebar, “were not receiving” structural ties between all the different pieces. So, as the rebar, which they found to be almostone hundred percent corroded and nonexistent, through ground-penetrating radar and radiographysampling, there was not much impounding it together outside of time the cohesion of the concretemix.When they removed them, they did have to takepart of the bridge with it. So you can see in the photos on the right, these kinds of stepped area with the core loopholes is where they drilled through it toremove it from the connection. And then positioned HSS steel framing to supportit and allow for transport. So, in 2017, and sort of the centennial ofthe creation of the connect, the city decided that they were going to preserve the secondlion. But take a different approach with it. It was going to be displayed in a public parkoverlooking the connection. To kind of have this connection between theoriginal and the aged, and the permutations and the originals, as well. However, the decision by the city officialswas they wanted it to be conserved as a spoil. Whereas the one in city hall was more a restorationapproach. They wanted to illustrate the life of thelions. So they demanded the crannies to be seen, theywanted all the bumps and traumata, sort of warts and all approach.So, as part of our assessments, we took thatinto consideration in select our medication programmes. So our second case study was the Maurice SavoieMural, which is a large scale mural on the two sides of Memorial University. It’s twelve large scale decorative panelsthat is a combination of cementitious mortar on a concrete approval that is structurallyhung on the side of the building. It dates to 1966. And Maurice Savoie was a famed Qubcoisceramicist. So, while there’s a lot of research abouthis ceramic office, if anyone’s been to Montreal, he did a lot of the murals in the Montrealtube station … Or, subway stations. But regrettably, for whatever reason, thereis no record of him ever use a cementitious or concrete medium. There are no records of why on earth thisthing ended up in Newfoundland. The university has very little records. But, basically, it was put up there in 1966 and it’s not been touched since. So as you can see, there is a lot of largescale loss as a result of the corroding rebar. Popping pieces off and, recently, some pieceshad sort of fallen into the walkways underneath at the university. So it was saw a state and safety hazard. So one of the other issues that the clienthad to decide was the building needed a full restoration. It’s got a lot of leaking windows, it’s gota leaking roof.But what do you prolong? The abide building or the artwork? And it came down to the health and safetyneeds, that they actually cured the artwork over the building. So a lot of the conditions, very typical ofconcrete and cementitious cloths. Disclosed and expanding rebar. With this mural solely you can see onthe far right, the two separate seams, the outer slouse of the cementitious mortar, that would otherwise have been stirred in a mildew, they would have pulped it into the mold. He computed additional aggregates and pigments, kind of, to get these influences and fleshes. And then, the concrete backing, which hassort of a large mix aggregate, would have been spewed on top of that with a coating ofembedded reinforcing sword in between. Nonetheless, probably when constructing it, the rebarsunk. So in instances, the rebar is actually protrudingthrough the surface, or within a one-fourth to a sixteenth of an inch from the face. So, that’s motived some serious problems. And likewise, all of the caulking had disappointed. It likely had been replaced at some phase, but, like I said, there were no records existing.So one of the big-hearted things that we looked atis doing full state analysis to understand the extent of the damage and find all of theloss and all of the voids. Whether it was a visual loss, or there werevoids behind the surface. So we were able to address these problems. But one of the biggest factors was addressingthe biological emergence. The climate in Newfoundland, as I said, it’svery mute. And temperatures vary throughout the year. So it was sort of a perfect climate, and perfectsurface for this type of problem.So as a result, there was very extensive biologicalgrowth over the part mural, fogging a lot of the details, which is sort of a wetlandscene of crane-like fledglings, reeds, flowers. Normal of sort of like the marshlands, we’reassuming, that he might have drawn from of the nearby environment. The other aspects that he utilized, he did embeddedpebbles, mashed pebbles and actually slate and terracotta into the mural. So it actually spreads out from it to giveit more depth and dimension. And then exerted a secondary, highly pigmented, mortar, sort of like splatter draw with light commons and radiant crimson throughout themural.But unfortunately, the biological increment hadsort of leeched onto that. So trying to find the solution of, “Do youget rid of the paint? ” Or, “Do you get rid of the bio proliferation? ” So through our employ, we did a lot of colormatching and mortar samples so we could find a equivalent pair for the exertion. Sourcing local beach, sourcing neighbourhood stonesfor the substitutions prior to us starting all of our make. So, the most exciting of it is the dinosaur. So, Dinny the dinosaur, same to the onesthat were talked about yesterday, it is from the 1930 s. It’s a large scale concrete fossil locatedat the Calgary Zoo. It was actually one of 56 created by a localartist for this sort of archaic ballpark. Same to the Midwest in the US, dinosaurand petroleum is what Alberta is known for. So this was a very big neighbourhood fascination forCalgary.Unfortunately, in the 80 s, and through thetime period, most of the collection of 56 dinosaurs were either removed or demolished. And the only original still standing at thezoo is Dinny. However, there is a new ancient park separatefrom Dinny. That is fiberglass fossils that has sortof virtual walkthroughs “for childrens”, and radicals. So there’s a little of a disassociationthat Dinny, regrettably, is now sitting alone by himself tucked away. And then also with … There’s been a lotof restoration with the zoo. Principally because pandas are coming from China. Which spurns the need to do something withDinny. There has been a lot of … Similar to theconcrete, there’s been cracking, there’s been peeling of the paint that has resulted inhealth and safety concerns. So they’ve had to block up the area.The other facet is he’s now blocked off bya brand-new road that was added in to the zoo for better parking and access. So it used to be that you could … Sort ofthis scenery that he would sort of appear out of nowhere as you turn a angle. But now, he’s sort of blocked off, the roadactually prohibiting access. Sort of opposite of everything else. And, we do know he’s been painted multipletimes over the years. But outside of regular maintenance of generalwashing from the zoo personnel, little has been done. He’s also unearthed directly next to an animalpen. So there’s that extra bed of now there’sbits falling off. So it’s not only just a jeopardy to beings, it’s a jeopardy to the swine. And there’s the probability, which we’ll bedoing analysis to confirm, if there is lead paint. Also, if there’s asbestos. Asbestos was used widely in anything and everythingin Canada.It was excavated there, and a lot of timesit was actually mixed with plaster to make it more ductile and provide a little bit morestability. So, we’ll be is proved that. And then estimating how do we are genuinely treatit “if youre having” that amount of hazardous materials on a piece that’s that big-hearted next to swine. So, we likewise carried out the medicines onthe lion following our sort of review with the city to evaluate how do you preserve thisas a ruin, but knowing that it’s going back to an outdoor environment. That it’s going to be descended on. It’s going to be likely vandalized. It’s going to be in a public ballpark that’s notregularly monitored, conventional of any type of outdoor public artistry, roadside entertainments, there’s only so much you can control.So, what we ended up doing is focusing onthe structural repairs as well as restores to crackings, vacants, losses to prevent furtherwater infiltration into the monument. So we looked at the different sections knowingthat some repair work had been done when it was removed. Gigantic steel staples were added into theneck to secure the principal. But no undertaking was done to the sort of skirtplinth that was underneath it, which was actually in several different sections. So it’s likely that the lion itself, whileit was cast in five bits, this sort of plinth around it was then supplemented based on the dimensionsof the kiosk that it seat on. So as a result, all the lions are just a littleoff. It’s not actually square and plumb, whichyou would think something that’s engineered for a bridge would be.But, it wasn’t. So we are genuinely did formation reinforcementwith Cintec anchors to tie those articles together. And, the extremely fragile and corroded rebarthat was in the portion of the connection was actually all realise cut and removed. And it’s going to be reincorporated into thenew design of the new presentation sort of platform that is being designed for it. Then we likewise did extended cracking amends. Some of which were actually through crannies. Work that had been done … The client hadhired an creator to restore the artworks who had done the restoration for the other lion. And while it’s great that they hired someoneto do the direct, unfortunately, that person didn’t have a full understanding of the bestoptions. So a lot of the sound mends is simply fillingthe surface. And, once those were removed, we realizedthat some of these crannies were actually half a paw deep.So we applied liquid repellent coatings andmineral pigmented veneers by KEIM to allow breath ability of the surface as well as providinga protective membrane and a kind of somewhat regalium coloring. As I said, the customer demanded it conservedas a ruin, so they didn’t want an opaque face, or a painted search face. So they wanted it to look a hundred yearsold. So we sort of worked with him to find a happymedium of enough armour versus what aesthetic they were going for. For the cleansing, for removal of the acryliccoating, we pointed up doing CO2 cleaning. Because the abrasive techniques we knew wouldbe a little too much based on what they had done with the previous lion. So as I mentioned with the Maurice Savoie Mural, the bio emergence was the largest thing of time scavenging it was the biggest thing. So you can see on the left, the bio increment, and then on the right, after cleanse. We also did same restores of cracks andrepairs to walls. As I indicated, the disclosed rebar was causingareas to spall off. Which asked removal. So where disclosed rebar was perceptible, it waseither cleansed or cut off and coated. And then new repairs shade paired and amended. As you can see on the bottom right, therewere several glowing fixtures that had been drilled into the piece over the years, resultingin innumerable pits, plastic pushes, kind of a little bit of utilitarian approach to electricalwork.So as a result, we sort of had to faux finishit, in essence, to get to the seam arguments and everything to disappear as much as possible. And then did a same approaching of applyinga water repellent and corrosion inhibitors to prevent future deterioration. Really focusing with the client that maintenancefor these slice was going to be a huge aspect. So, our work with Dinny has not started more. But, hopefully, the biggest factor as I said, is going to be the health and safety. Evaluating how do we safely remove, if thereis lead paint. And remove all the failed materials whilesafely , not just for the workers, but for the swine and the public. As there will be a gigantically massive influxof people to the area. So you can see, there is a large hole thatwas cut into the center of him. In 2008, the structural designers came inand did revaluations to made to ensure that he wasn’t going to completely collapse on the public’shead.And found that structural reinforcements arerequired in his neck. There’s no internal corroborates, “its just” theactual really frame that’s there. There was, luckily, with the trimming the holeand examination in 2008, removed a longstanding possibility that there was a Model T inside ofhim. Where that came from, it’s unknown, seeingthat he was formed in the 1930 s. But unsure. But there’s not one in there. It wouldn’t fit anyway. So as I memorandum, like one of the most difficult things. While the treatment programs were a definiterequirement to fix the health and safety concerns as well as get these to a stable state thatthey can be returned to their former beauty and displayed and enjoyed by the public, isreally ensuring that maintenance and monitoring programs are part of the therapy curriculum. And ensuring that not only that there’s awarenessfor that with the public, but illustrating to the client and the public that you’ve gotto set aside coin for that.This is if you want to keep this stuff, youhave to keep working on it. Which I’m sure all of you deal with on a dailybasis. So one of the things, the lion is actually, while it was unfortunately supposed to be removed last year, due to the sort of controversy, undertaking was delayed, and it is now being installed this summer. Fingers traversed. To its brand-new point. An speciman of the brand-new sort of concrete structurethat it’s going to be put on and sort of watching over the new lions. Same with the mural. One of the large-hearted influences was because the failedcaulking had allowed a lot of water to get into between the different committees, and sortof merely sucking it into that mural, and exactly the rebar was just most rusting. So, try to enforce that even though accessto a lot of these large scale patches will be difficult, and age ingesting, and costly, that this regular monitoring will reduce large scale troubles down the road.In the hopes that fix a little bit now, soyou don’t have to fix everything or gamble full raze and defeat later down the road. So with Dinny, we’ll see how it goes. As I said, they have been washing some ofthe other fossils in the park. So we hope that they will be able to do sometype of maintenance with Dinny down the road. But, because there is that sort of intrinsiccommunity aspect with Dinny of this love for him, as all children love dinosaurs. Of, do you let beings climb on it? Do you not? I imply hopefully, formerly contribute paint’s removed, it can be. Don’t chew the decorate. But it’s also the idea that now that he’scompletely separated from his original situation, and all the other dinosaurs are elsewherein the park, how do you fit that in the narrative of is he still advertisement for the zoo? Or is he merely, “Oh, that thing that sits overthere.” So that’s what we’re sort of hoping with the…Working with the zoo, doing advocacy, and maybe public resources in terms ofcrowdfunding to have a little bit more of a revitalized safarus and brand-new compassion for the newgeneration for Dinny. So yes, so , thank you very much. Speaker 2: And do “were having” our first questionfor Kelly? Speaker 1: I have dropitis today. Speaker 2: Well I have a question for you. Speaker 1: Sure. Speaker 2: I actually have two questions foryou. Speaker 1: Okay. Speaker 2: The first one is, did you use anytype of biocidal cleaner when you removed biological growth? Speaker 1: We did. We employed D2. Speaker 2: D2? Speaker 1: Yeah. Speaker 2: And the second question I havefor you, is can you tell me a little more about your CO2 cleaning? Speaker 1: Sure. So CO2 is basically abusing dry ice in tinylittle pellets that is attached to a massive air compressor. Luckily for the lion, the city provided aspace for this to be worked on. And it was sort of like a large warehouse, garage infinite. So pretty much, specific actions of the CO2 is itshock freezes the membrane, and through thermal swelling, then kind of explosions it off thesurface. Aside from the detrimental effects of the abrasivecleaning that was previously used on the other lion, the CO2, you have a lot less to almostno residual cleanup.Because it’s sort of , not like a laser whereit vaporizes it off the surface, but it roughly does. So it was a lot sort of safer and more manageabletreatment for cleaning. Speaker 2: Right. And that induces me to the last question. Did you try any laser emptying measures? Speaker 1: We didn’t try laser emptying. While we do do laser cleansing, the optionsfor it … Everything was beige. So the absorption proportions for the laser varybecause of the … Well, I don’t want to get super technical, but mostly it’s not darkenough that laser would have worked. Speaker 2: Right. You had needed differ in this original surfaceto the coating. Speaker 1: Precisely, yeah. The acrylic varnish was a weird cream color? That ointment grey-haired. But there was also … The veneer wasn’tuniform, there were random blobs of epoxy that had been dripped on it. There was age-old core gaps that had been filledwith we didn’t know what. There was a very sundry record ofthese once they came here off the aqueduct in’ 99. The other two are still sitting in that sortof lion outdoor statue graveyard that the city owns.One was used as a guinea pig to sort of doall the testing on one, and then the one that was in best mode went to city hall. The one that we worked on was sort of thenext one, and then there’s the third one, and the guinea pig that are … What do youdo? So. Speaker 2: Thank you. Speaker 1: Thanks. Speaker 2: Other questions? Thank you, Kelly ..