5 of the World’s Most Dangerous Chemicals

Germany, 1939 In a secret bunker on the German-Polish border Nazi negotiators were overseeing the production of a recently discovered chemical they’d code-named “Substance N” It cooked when they exposed it to air, It exploded when it stroked irrigate, it was lethal when inhaled, and when it decomposed it spit out deadly hydrofluoric acid. When loaded into a flamethrower and ignitedit could burn at temperatures over 2400 C The plan was to arm corps with “Substance N” and use it to softened allied bunkers into hot porridge But then after studying it for a while even the German soldiers was exactly “Whoa.”experiments with “Substance N” were discontinued because the Nazis decided it was to dangerous to work with. Should give you some kind of sense of what we’re dealing with here when we talk about the most dangerous substances in the world.I’m talking about things that explode when you touch them, things so lethal that if even a millionth of a gram went up your nose, it would end up killing you things that could even disable you because of their wholly, debilitatingly, frightening smelling, and yes, chemicals so serious, that even the Nazis thought they were crazy. Let’s begins with what the Germans had in that secret weapons bunker They originally planned to produce 90 tons of the stuff every month but exclusively made about 30 tons throughout the whole war what they’d concocted was chlorine trifluoride, “the worlds largest” vigorous fluorinating agent known to humanity fluorinating workers rip other molecules apart to supersede their hydrogen atoms with fluorine the result is what chemists called a’ violently exothermic reaction ‘, in this case known as a fluorine volley it’s much more dangerous to handle than even fluorine gas, which as anyone with a degree in chemistry could tell you is not a sentence that you get to say very often it’s also a better oxidizer than oxygen oxidizers are deepens that steal electrons from other substances in a action and they are what fix combustion possible.Chlorine trifluoride is so good at this, that it can burn stuff that sane people might think of as non combustible, like bricks or asbestos or things that has already become burned oxidizers are likewise was just about to ignite rocket fuel and in the very short time that us rocket scientists thought about working this material as a propellant, they quickly learned that this idea was bad and the early 1950 s, the first time that US scientists tried to ship chlorine trifluoride in volume the sword container cracked and a full ton of it spilled out it burned so sizzling that the chemical feed through an entire concrete storey and then a rhythm of grunge and gravel beneath that One eye-witness described the spill merely by saying “The concrete…was on fire! ” Chlorine trifluoride is still manufactured and is used by semi-conductor companies to clean their material to within an inch of its life.The good news is that you can store it safely in a regular steel drum as long as it’s air-tight and you’re really , really careful, because, it instantly shrivels the inside lining of the container left with a nonreactive plating of metallic fluoride. Nonreactive is not a word that we’re gonna need when talking about the next compound on our list “Azidoazide azide”, “the worlds largest” explosive chemical compound ever created This twitchy little compound is a part of a class of substances known as “High nitrogen forceful materials” And it does what it does because nitrogen precisely wants to be left alone A nitrogen atom bonded with another nitrogen atom is one of the most stable molecules on earth Their electrons assemble an extremely strong triple attachment with each other, which, in sort can usually merely be broken by a molecule being hit by lightning The concentration of that bond means that when two nitrogen atoms click together, they secrete an enormous quantity of energy.So if you is currently considering a molecule of AA .. We’re gonna call it AA stimulate Azidoazide Azide is hard You can see how it gets its bash. It has 14 nitrogen atoms and because of the behavior the molecule was structured, None of them are currently in triple alliance. Instead, they’re stuck in a loosely bound high-energy state and are dying to move to a more stable lower energy state which entails exhausting a lot of pent-up energy in the process. As a upshot, AA is both highly reactive and heck-a explosive. How sensitive is this stuff? Well, it’s actually hard to say, because it’s too sensitive even to measure how confidential it is.A crew of German pharmacists caused it in 2010 with the assistance of the US army, in an effort to develop more forceful combinations. And their first report on the uncovering, “theyre saying”, and I mention, “The sensitivity of C2N14 is beyond our capabilities of measurement … … even the smallest possible loadings in outrage& friction-tests led to explosive decomposition.” To give you a list of how touchy this trash is, here’s a list of things that stimulate Azidoazide explode: moving it, touching it, disbanding it in answer, leaving it undisturbed on a glass illustration, uncovering it to bright glowing, uncovering it to x-rays, putting it in a spectrometer, turning on the spectrometer, and my beloved: ABSOLUTELY Nothing !!! They had it in a shock-proof explosive subject, in a dark climate controlled room…And it blew up! I think somebody said something mean about it somewhere, and “its like”:( Censored Bleep) The conduct scientists on the team that synthesized it announced it: “A very exciting discovery.” If I is cooperating with Azidoazide Azide, waking up every morning, and help to ensure that I still had all my fingers would be a very exciting discovery. Next up, let’s talk about Dimethylcadmium This is an organometallic deepen, which entails it it has a molecule in which carbon has ligament with a metal In this case, that metal is Cadmium, a jolly nasty patron all on its own So far we’ve talked about chemicals that explode or cover everything in unquenchable burn And don’t get me wrong; Dimethylcadmium, it does that more But that is not what draws it so dangerous It is, in all probability, gram-for-gram the most toxic substance in the world It has both acute and chronic influences Which signifies it will kill you now AND later It was first prepared by a founder of metal organic chemistry A fellow worded Erich Krause who was from, yes, Germany It was 1917 To give you a sense of how Krause flattened he died in his laboratory at persons below the age of 37 after accidentally breath a cluster of chlorine but before that happened he managed to report his uncovering of Dimethylcadmium When you breathe it in it is absorbed instant into your bloodstream, where it basically performs as a kind of chemical chauffeur for lethal deepens of cadmium to travel all around your form Because it’s so effective at exploiting your bloodstream it quickly consequences your most blood-infused parts Like lungs and your kidneys and liver, developing compounds that rip electrons off the atoms of your cadres But if you manage to survive your first few hours after Dimethylcadmium exposure, don’t get your hopes up.It’s also excessively carcinogenic, So it will take you down with cancer simply to spite you This substance is so potent that, as an airborne vapor merely a few millionths of a gram per cubic rhythm of air assembles the legal safety restraints But if you pour it, how are you going to clean it up? Water? Well, where reference is greetings with ocean it produces both lots of heat and lots of hydrogen gas Which is flammable so, yeah, it explodes in ocean Maybe you could sweep it up? Eeuhh friction concludes it ignite Might wanna exactly try waiting for it to decompose? Well, it will do that It’ll word a layer of dimethyl cadmium peroxide, which is a friction-sensitive explosive So you’re just one shoe-scuff away from “KABLAMMO” And on top of it all the chemical has an odor that has been described as foul, sickening, metal, and horrid But that’s nothing compared to our next compound: Thioacetone It won’t explode, or start barrages, or even give you cancer Compared to other chemicals on the listing it’s like a cute little fluffy bunny If that charming little fluffy bunny had the MOST UNGODLY STINK YOU CAN IMAGINE That’s right, Thioacetone makes the reward for The World’s Smelliest Chemical It’s a thiol, an organic compound in which a carbon atom is bonded to a sulfur-hydrogen pair They’re all gross A skunk’s scatter exerts two different thiols to eye-watering effect Most sulfur-containing combinations are released after decomposing flesh which is a reason why we would want to be very good at being able to detect them and also not think that it smells…Good But when it is necessary to bad bouquets Thioacetone takes the stinky, severely unappetizing patty You can reek one drop of this substance, almost instantly, from half a kilometer apart In the 1960 s a vial of the stuff fell off a shelf in a research lab People were chucking their cookies in builds 200 metres away But the greatest example of thioacetone’s silent-but-deadly strength comes from the German city of Freiburg where in 1889 chemists at a soap plant were, apparently, working on a larger molecule known as tri-thioacetone, which is used as a flavoring and a smell But, when they broke it apart into thioacetone laborers started coming complaint Spontaneous outbreaks of upchuck were reported in the bordering vicinities It led to the evacuation of the whole city There might be a lot to learn about thioacetone and thiols in general but, understandably, scientists are not truly scurrying to be considered in it And ultimately, there’s the most significant corrosive agent in the world The most dangerous acid ever devised by humanity Fluoroantimonic acid Because what schedule of dangerous compounds would be complete without a super acid What makes an acid an battery-acid is its ability to donate a proton to another molecule adjacent it And a proton is just a hydrogen atom that’s lost its electron This process is called Protonation And an acid’s fortitude is determined by how inclined it is to give up that proton A shaky battery-acid, acetic battery-acid for example Which is just the undiluted form of vinegar will drag its hoof about protonating other molecules Most of it will time sit there doing nothing But a strong acid like sulfuric acid’ll swipe that proton in the air like a sea volleyball at spring snap And remember from Substance N how crazy fluorine is Well, fluoroantimonic battery-acid is ten quadrillion times stronger than sulfuric acid This molecule is praying for an excuse to fly apart Once it’s lost its hydrogen atoms the remaining atoms of fluorine and another element, antimony rend through everything else around them, rending electrons off nearby molecules and leaving merely organic goo in their aftermath Peculiarly eliciting is that fluorine really likes to bond with calcium So formerly the battery-acid cries through the fatty organic tissues of your surface and muscles the fluorine will burn through your bones The only way to collect fluoroantimonic acid is in Teflon containers Teflon, by the way, is held together by carbon-fluorine alliances which are the single strongest attachment in organic chemistry We don’t actually know a lot about this acid because it’s so hard to do experiments with it You can’t settled it in a syringe or on a move It gobbles through glass like it’s cotton candy You can’t put it under a whiff bonnet – it’ll eat the vapour hood All you can really do is, just like, look at it Ideally from……very far away Thank you for watching this particularly dangerous SciShow infusion Thank you including our Subbable customers who help us make this show for them And for everyone else, to find our how you can support us you can go to subbable.com And if you want to keep going smarter with us? 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